Loyal Followers

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

D’Buai Angin Angau–bab 1

“Marsha, hahahahahaha…kau tertipu juga Marsha. Kau bodoh ke apa? Hahahahahaha….,” gelak bapa tiri Marsha bertambah kuat.

Marsha menangis terisak-isak di atas lantai semen rumah teres dua tingkat itu. Dia meronta-ronta dan hampir melompat-lompat macam kera kena belacan. Namun pelukan ayah tirinya, Pak Mahat, amat erat sekali. Marsha dapat bau mulut Pak Mahat yang busuk tembakau kretek Sempoerna yang mungkin diseludup dari Indonesia tu. “Dasar jantan keparat…dah la peluk kita, mulut busuk isap kretek tak baya cukai…sial!”, kata Marsha dalam hati.

“Hahahahaha….cough cough cough…,”gelak Pak Mahat terlampau kuat sehingga dia batuk.

“HAhahahaha…(kali ni dia tak batuk lagi), dulu aku tipu mak kau, skang ni aku tipu kau pula…hahahahaha…, pompuan bodoh…tak pakai otak….hahahahaha….,” sambung Pak Mahat. Marsha terus dipeluk erat. Pak Mahat teramat syiok. Kopi Tongkat Ali yang diminumnya setiap hari nampak berkesan.

Marsha, atau nama penuh beliau, Puteri Nurul Marsha Shazreen Azlyn Tequila adalah anak tunggal Makcik Saodah dengan lakinya yang asal, Saad bin Lebai Mahsyur. Apabila Saad meninggal akibat kemalangan motosikal, di mana Saad telah melanggar se-ekor lembu besar yang merayau-rayau tak tentu arah setelah terlepas dari estet lembu di Gemas, Saodah telah bernikah dan berkahwin dengan si Mahat durjana ni.

Saodah mempunyai 7 orang anak, 3 lelaki dan 4 perempuan.  Marsha adalah yang bongsu. Sedih sekali, kesemua anak Saodah, kecuali Marsha telah tiada. Anak sulungnya, seorang lelaki, telah dikidnap oleh lelaki yang dipercayai memandu sebuah van putih semasa anaknya yang sulung , yang ketika itu berumur 4 tahun, pergi ke Kedai Mydin pada pukul 10 malam untuk membeli rokok daun lakinya, Saad.

Anaknya yang nombor dua mati lemas semasa dia berumur 3 tahun semasa dia mandi-manda di Port Dickson. Masa dia mati lemas tu, Saodah tengah khusyuk baca majalah Mangga.

Anak ke tiga Saodah mati semasa berumur 2 tahun apabila dia terkeluar dari tingkap kereta Kancil semasa di dalam perjalanan di lebuhraya PLUS pada 12 tengah malam. Saodah ketika itu tertidor.

Yang lain-lain tu pun hilang ataupun mati di dalam keadaan yang sama lah. Tak payah lah nak cerita panjang-panjang. Rugi kertas.

Saodah tak tahu bahawa si Mahat durjana ni sebenarnya adalah pembekal anak-anak gadis ke pusat-pusat pelacuran di Kuala Lumpur. Masa Mahat meminang Saodah setelah mereka berjumpa di luar Klinik Rakyat, Saodah amat terpegun dengan budi-bahasa Mahat yang amat cool. Mahat ada “swag”, kata Saodah dalam hati.

Marsha adalah seorang anak gadis yang baik sekali. Dia bertudung setiap masa. Sejak berumur 2 tahun dia telah bertudung. Dia bangun pukul 5 pagi setiap hari. Setelah mandi dan sembahyang subuh, dia membaca Quran. Pastu dia pergi ke kebun getah untuk menoreh. Pastu dia perah susu lembu. Pastu dia ke ladang kelapa sawit mengambil upah mengutip kelapa sawit. Pastu dia buat bisnes internet lagi. Pastu dia juga menjadi telefonis Maxis dari rumah. Tapi dia tak tinggal sembahyang. Dia juga bertudung setiap masa. Pada hari minggu, dia mengajar bebudak kampung baca Quran. Walau umurnya baru 21 tahun, Marsha telah mempunyai banyak pengalaman hidup.

Pak Mahat dah lama stim tengok si Marsha ni. Tak tahan dia tengok t-shirt ketat Marsha tiap-tiap hari. Bila dia tengok seluar ketat yang dipakai Marsha setiap hari, dia terlebih lah stim. Tiap-tiap hari Mahat mengidam untuk menjamah body Marsha yang curvenya macam turn three kat Sepang F1 track.

Pak Mahat sememangnya banyak stim. Kalau dia balik dari lepak-lepak kat kedai kopi tu, maka Saodah pun kena la layan dia kalau dia nak berasmara. Sambil masak ker, iron baju ker atau aper ker, Saodah kener la berhenti untuk melayan si Mahat ni. Itu haknya, Mahat akan berkata. Dan saodah pun kener la memberi yang hak. Tapi bukannya lama pun, seminit setengah dah pun pancut. So, takder hal la sangat, Saodah pikir.

Semalam Mahat ajak Marsha ke Kuala Lumpur. Katanya nak minta tolong Marsha angkat peti sejuk yang dia nak beli. Marsha terpikir jugak, kenapa nak beli peti sejuk di KL? Kat Gemas pun banyak peti sejuk. Tapi takper la, pikir Marsha. Lagipun Marsha jarang-jarang ke KL. Syok jugak ke KL ni. Bley beli seluar ketat sehelai. Pikir Marsha.

Sampai sahaja di Kuala Lumpur, Mahat membawa Marsha ke sebuah rumah teres dua tingkat. Di situ ada seorang tauke karaoke (fooh, it rhymes!)  sedang menunggu. Marsha diheret ke dalam bilik. Mahat yang dah lama stim tengok liuk lintuk tubuh badan Marsha di dalam t-shirt dan seluar ketat yang Marsah pakai tu dah tak tahan lagi.

Dia terus bawa Marsha ke bilik dan menghempas Marsha ke katil. Marsha melompat terjun ke lantai semen. Mahat terus mengganas. Dia rentap tudung Marsha. Baju Marsha hendak dikoyaknya. Tapi tebal sangat. Tak terkoyak. Dia merentak seluar ketat Marsha. Marsha terpegun dengan kerakusan Pak tirinya. Marsha menangis.

Pak Mahat sentap seluar ketat Marsha. Tapi ketat sangat sehingga tak boleh dilondeh. Celaka betul, pikir Pak Mahat. Namun dia tak give up.

Tiba-tiba, pintu bilik ditendang dengan kuat. “Hoi, orang tua….lu jangan rogol itu pompuan la….” jerit tauke karaoke tu kepada Mahat.

“Hah…apa lu kacau? Aku dah stim ni…aku nak kasik sikit ini pompuan…dah lama aku stim ngan dia….emak dia dah tak besh…aku nak dia….lu pegi mampus sana luar la apek…” jerit Mahat.

“Eh…lu dengar sini Mahat….lu janji mau kasi virgin…saya kata okay…bayar lu 3 ribu….kalau bukan virgin, gua bayar lu 100 saja…okay?,” jerit tauke karaoke tu.

Mendengar ugutan itu, Mahat terus potong stim. “Ok ok lah….babi sial….ambik la….malas aku nak tengok muka krepot lu ….. kau tau Ah Beng, kau memang sial….buat pompuan macam barang dapur…kau lacurkan dia orang….dah….ambik la si pompuan ni….kasik aku 3000 tu…”jerit Mahat.

Marah sekali Mahat. Jelas sekali Mahat berasa mual dengan perangai Ah Beng yang membeli dan melacurkan perempuan–perempuan. Mahat rasa Ah Beng ni lah manusia yang paling tak berhati perut, macam binatang. “Ader ker boleh beli pompuan pastu paksa kejer kat karaoke,” bisik hati Mahat yang meluap-luap.

“Eh Mahat, lu jangan kasi insult sama gue ok, nama gue bukan Ah Beng lah, gue ada nama English lu tau?” jerit Ah Beng.

“Hek eleh, muka macam tak siap nama Inggeris konon…porrrdah!”, balas Mahat dengan meniru gaya pembuat roti canai kat depan head quarters DAP kat pekan.

“Eh, lu hormat la sikit Mahat, nama gue Hennessy Heng lu tau….Hennessy…bukan Ah Beng….lu sial….” pekik Hennessy Heng.

Hennessy Heng memberi RM3125.oo kepada Mahat. “Nah…skang kau belah….”

“Itu nama whisky la apek, lu nyer Bapak manyak original eh…, hahahahahaha” Mahat ketawa terbahak-bahak.

“Eh, Whisky Heng, kasik akunyer 3000, aku nak transport claim pun tau….2r0 ringgit….” jerkah Mahat. “Hennessy konon…cam sial….” bisik Mahat dalam hati.

“Eh…ini 3125.00 saja la, transport claim aku 250 ringgit lah…sial!” jerit Mahat.

“Kalau lu pakai Ron 97 gua bayar 250 ringgit la…ini ko pakai Ron 95 saja…gua bayar 125 saja…belah la lu….ini Marsha gua punya skang….” jawap Hennessy Heng.

Mahat mengambil wang tersebut. Sebelum beredar, dia merenung wajah Marsha sekali lagi. “Marsha, aku dah jual kau kat Cina karaoke ni…skang ko kejer la baik-baik dengan dia…jangan malukan nama keluarga kita….kita keluarga baik-baik, kita tak penah tipu orang, kita cari makan halal, tak mencuri, tak tipu….paham?”, Mahat tekun memberi pesanan terakhir kepada anak tirinya itu.

Marsha menagis terisak-isak. “Sampai hati bapak jual saya…tapi takper lah…asalkan bapak take care emak, saya tak kisah…ini sebenarnya sudah takdir…saya terima nasib saya….drive baik-baik yer bapak…jangan langgar lembu macam bapak kandung saya…nanti takder sesaper yang nak jaga mak saya lagi…k bai…” kata Marsha ditengah tengah sedu sedan beliau.

“Okay, aku belah skang ni….”, kata Mahat. Dia pun belah.

“Apa lu punya nama penuh ha?” tanya Hennessy Heng.

“Erm…Puteri Nurul Marsha Shazreen Azlyn Tequila”, jawap Marsha.

“Howah…manyak panjang lu nyer namer ah…manyak glemer, tapi takper, gue panggey lu Marsha Tequila sajer…ok?” kata Hennessy.

“Guenyer namer Hennessy Heng, lu tau, ingat tu…” sambung Hennessy.

“Okay, Ah Heng….” jawap Marsha.

“Eh, Hennessy Heng, lu smart alec! Mulai sekarang, saya daddy awak,  awak tau? Who’s your daddy” Jawap!” pekik Hennessy.

“WHO’S YOUR DADDY?” jerit Hennessy apabila Marsha tak jawap.

“You…you my daddy…” jawap Marsha. Nak ketawa pun ada. Tapi oleh lerana dia baru kena jual, maka Marsha pun jawap lah di dalam nada sedey.

“Hmmph…tau takper!”, kata Hennessy Heng. Puas hati beliau.

Hennessy merenung wajah Marsha Tequilla yang ayu itu. Kulitnya yang putih melepak. Tubuhnya yang menggiurkan itu. Dadanya yang turun naik dibawah t-short ketatnya. Peha dan punggungnya yang pastinya meronta untuk keluar dari pelukan seluar ketat yang dipakai Marsha Tequilla itu.

“Fooh….patut ler Mahat stim. Aku pun stim. Tapi tak komplit ni. Kalau dier pakai cermin mata samak itu tudung, baru perfect!” pikir Hennessy Heng. Itu memangnyer fetish si Hennessy Heng. Macam sial.

“Hmmp….mulai hari ni, kau sini duduk. Aku kasik kau duit. Kau sini duduk sendiri. kau jangan cuba lari. Aku akan cari kau sampai lobang jamban kalo kau lari. Kau kerja di karaoke aku punya mulai malam ni. Paham?” kata Hennessy dengan tegas. “Who’s your daddy?” tanya Hennessy, seperti beliau tidak puas dengan jawapan tadi.

“Er…erm…your my daddy. Saya paham. Saya takkan lari. Bayaran camner?” tanyer Marsha.

“Gua bayar lu 25 ringgit satu malam. Apa-apa customer belanjer, lu dapat 25% komisyen. Lu sini duduk free. Makan gua kasik,” jelas Hennessy.

“Erm…okay,” jawap Marsha.

“Sana karaoke, lu nyer nama glemer is Tequilla, lu paham?” herdik Hennessy Heng. “Who’s your daddy?” sambung HH (eh…dah penat type nama penuh dier ni!).

“Erm…your my daddy. Okay. Memang dah lamer pun saya nak orang panggil nama saya yang glemer tu. Kat kampung orang panggey Sha sajer…” jawap Marsha.

“Okay, bagut. Ini malam, kul 8 lu get ready. Nanti saya pegi beli lu punyer pakaian ketat, mini skirt sama make up,” kata HH.

“Yeaay…” bisik Marsha. Tapi oleh kerana dia baru kener jual, dia cuma menggangguk kepala saja.

“Okay, gua mau pegi keluar…” kata HH.

HH berjalan menuju pintu. Sebelum membuka pintu, dia menoleh dan merenung keayuan Marsha Tequilla sekali lagi. Bagai tak puas dia menengok wajah dan tubun Marsha.

“Who’s your….”

Belum sempat habis HH menanya soalan cepu emasnya itu, Marsha menjawap…”your my daddy…”

*bersambung

 

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

The free market oppression

In our relationship with the State, we are only concerned about our well-being and interests as individuals. Basically, we would not want an oppressive State, a State which transgresses our basic rights with impunity.

We would then make conclusions in respect of our relationship with the State. This is the nature of the oft-repeated social contract between us and the State. Basically, we, as individuals, agree to surrender some of our rights to the State in exchange for collective benefits which the State promises to bring to the society as a whole.

However, the advent of capitalism and the free market creates another machination for oppression, namely, what I would term as the “free market oppression.” Assisting the free market oppression is mass-marketing, a free market tool made far easier, cheaper and a lot more efficient by the internet.

Unlike State-sponsored oppression, which often operates through physical forces (such that is taking place in Syria currently), free market oppression is far more sophisticated and sublime. Its aim is not dissimilar to the aim of the State-sponsored oppression, namely, subjugation. However, while the latter’s objective is to physically subjugate the citizens, the former’s aim is to subjugate the mind of the consumers.

Mass-marketing is aimed at creating a state of mind within a susceptible target group. Susceptibility is the exploitation agent. If susceptibility does not exist, mass-marketing would aim to create one. That it does insidiously, subliminally and with lasting effectiveness. It is like the hypnotiser asking his subject to look at the pendulum moving from side to side until, at a snap of the fingers, the subject is hypnotised.

The danger with free market oppression is the fact that none of us realise that it is happening. It takes place every second of the day, on televisions, YouTube, websites, newspapers, magazines, billboards and every kind of mass-media imaginable. And they are all legal, of course. In fact, the State earns money out of it!

Capitalism and the free market are of course all about having the luxury of choices and the right to choose. That is in turn tied up to free will and its exercise. But have we ever stopped and asked how free our will is at the hand of capitalism and the free market? Or whether the free market has grown so big and powerful that it has managed to create a hologram of perceived reality that controls our mind and lead us to nowhere but to a lifestyle which is dictated not by our free will, but by that hologram?

In other word, are we all living in a reality administered by capitalism and the free market? Ironically, by taking part in this hologram-ed reality, we continue to feed that administered reality, giving it more power over us, which in turn are used to tighten its grip on us. And the cycle goes on, subliminally, as we continue to live hypnotically, almost happily ever after, when in actual fact we are just part of a vicious and oppressive mind-regime.

Karl Lagerfeld, that fashion scion, a true blue free market royalty, recently branded Adele as “too fat.” Of course Adele hits back saying something to the effect that she is what she is and she doesn’t want to be “some skinny mini with my tits out.”[i]

Now, imagine the world without mass marketing. Fat could be the norm of beauty for all we know. Or imagine what would happen had mass marketing fed all of us that fat is beautiful. Wouldn’t everybody in the world be trying to be fat by now? Go to GNC and I am sure lining its shelves would be various powders and herbs and what-nots which could make all of us go fat rather than slimming tea.

Adele had a good retort. She was brave. But Adele is just like every other woman who has nowhere else to live in other than this free market hologram. And that hologram is pretty oppressive to people like her, namely those who are deemed fat, and thus, ugly. Latest, Adele is now on diet and as of to date, she has lost approximately 19 kgs![ii]

One of the most oppressive, if not the most oppressive, free market hologram in Malaysia nowadays is targeted at young girls. And that is, being dark is unattractive or just plain ugly. You therefore need this, a whitening cream. Use that cream and the boy whom you like and who has been ignoring you will now notice you in no time. Remember the tv advert showing the slightly dark girl at the ticket counter admiring a boy who of course did not notice her?

That is free market oppression of the worst kind. Just imagine growing up with insecurities caused by the colour of your skin.

The State is governed, chiefly, by the Federal Constitution. It among others states that there shall be no discrimination on the ground of race, religion or gender.[iii]

Capitalism and the free market do not have a Constitution. It does not have etiquette rules (not in Malaysia, at least). It transgresses us in every possible way every second of the day. And unlike the State, where we have a general election every 5 years or so, we do not get to vote to choose the market we would like to have.

Now, a State without election and which oppresses is called despotism. What then do we call the free market?


[i] Mail Online – 10th February 2012

[ii] http://www.weightlossresources.co.uk/diet/success_story/adele.htm

[iii] Article 8

Thursday, April 05, 2012

To Tutu or Not to Tutu – part two

KUALA LUMPUR, April 5 — The government insisted today it did not receive a permit application for a Singapore ballet troupe to perform here despite organisers claiming the performances had been barred with no reason given.

Information, Communication and Culture Minister Datuk Seri Rais Yatim (picture) told reporters this morning that Puspal, or the Central Agency for the Application for Filming and Performance by Foreign Artists, had not received an application for the set of shows originally slated for this weekend.

“I love all forms of the arts and theatre. Ballet should be encouraged,” he said when asked if he enjoyed ballet himself.”

Read full report here.

To Tutu or Not to Tutu – breaking news

Fearing a riotous backlash from Malaysia’s hyper-sensitive, albeit slightly blur, rakyat, the Malaysian Bureau of Riotous Eccentricities & Delusions (BORED) had yesterday decided to ban tutus or any performances involving tutus anywhere in Malaysia.

Tutus, apparently, from now on, are deemed riotously indecent as it may cause a proclivity to immense sexual desires which in turn may result in an increase of illegal shagging, which ultimately, will end in baby dumping, change of faith (especially among the Muslims) and an inexplicable – and highly undesirable -  liking for Barry Manilow’s songs. 

It remains hazy – as it always is in Malaysia around April every year – whether short skirts, tight hot pants, bikinis, swim suits, g- strings, kebaya nyonya and tight kain batiks as well as Aznil Nawawi are going to be deemed indecent anytime soon.

Speaking on the condition of absolute anonymity, a spoke person of the Organisation of Malfunctioning Governmental Shit-Heads (OMGosh) – a new NGO established to defend riotous edicts by various governmental agencies – said yesterday that tutus are Christian Zionists’ propaganda tool which is insidiously aimed at the sub-conscious zone of every person, especially males of between 13 to 84 years of age. Tutus are thus malevolent agents of the Christian Jews who are hell bent on destroying the rakyats through sex, sex and sex.

Says the spoke person (quoted verbatim):

We iz very the worried at diz tootoo coz dey iz work below the otak and the rakyatz not realise wen dey see tootoo dey all become like zombie like dat, dey no realise dey being converted by diz jahat evil Kristian Zionis. We at OMGosh tink diz tootoo is same with der tattoo which last month dat Erika Badu wanted to use to brainwash the rakyats.”

OMGosh, according to the spoke person, has a 42 minute video (in HD) to prove its allegation that the poor and very weak Malaysian rakyats are being cock-and-bull- washed by tutus. It is estimated that to date, 17000 rakyats have been totally “turn-around upside down” by the tutus.

Meanwhile, another NGO, Centre for Complete Kookooness (COCK) today releases the result of a recent survey involving about 300 males who watched the uncensored version of Black Swan in  controlled environments, including their bedroom and toilets. The survey reveals a shocking 5 of them having a complete hard on during the full duration of the movie, even during the scene where Nina-the-ballerina-in-a-tutu was lying bleeding.

That proves that tutus are indecent, says the Chairman of COCK.

The Chairman further says that although he is definitely not racist or anti-Semitic, the fact that Natalie Portman, who plays the leading ballerina in that movie is Jewish did not escape his attention. According to him:

“Dat ah, pruf ferder dat der tutu and der Juice are axiz of evil.”

As of the time of writing, it remains unclear – as is usual here – whether Dato’ Nicol David will be allowed to play squash in Malaysia wearing a short skirt as she usually does in every other tournament around the globe. It also remains completely a mystery whether in the next SEA games, Malaysian body builders are going to have to perform in kain pelikat and oversized baju batik.

Meanwhile, in an unrelated, but most probably connected, news, the organisers of a public forum on “Christian Aqidah – are we threatened by Dong Zong?” today announce that they are seeking a clarification whether the tutu ban will affect Bishop Desmond Tutu’s visit to Malaysia next week. He is supposed to deliver a key-note address at the forum.

Ternama News Agency: 5th April 2012 (four days after April Fool’s day).

Tuesday, April 03, 2012

Democracy’s most obvious fallacy

In trying to justify socio-political acts as well as legislations, nothing is more abused by politicians than Jeremy Bentham’s Principle of Utility (more popularly referred to as the Utilitarian Principle).

Many politicians – senior ones included – would refer to the Utilitarian Principle and quote whatever they could muster out of it in their attempt at justifying, for example, the necessity for undertaking certain actions which is based solely or primarily by the fact that it is the “rights of the majority” to do so. To put it simply, it is said that “we are mandated by the majority and therefore we have the authority to do this.”

If only Jeremy Bentham was still alive and not just a preserved skeleton and head all dressed up and sitting down in his “Auto-icon” in University College, London. If he was, I am sure he would die of laughing so hard at such preposterous utilisation (pun not intended) of his Utilitarian Principle.

Essentially, Bentham, in his seminal work, “An Introduction to the Principles of Moral and Legislation” posits that “it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong.” In other words, Bentham’s principle dictates that if an act brings the greatest happiness to the biggest number of people, that act would be a right act to do.

Now, if we apply that to an act of a government which has been legally – and thus validly – elected by the majority of voters in a democratic system, such government would be viewed as a good government if it carries out acts or pass legislations which bring the highest degree of happiness to the most number of people.

Which begs the question, can that government, by virtue of it being elected by the majority, argue that all its acts and legislations which it sponsors at all time after its election are good and valid? Put it on a different way, can it be argued that just because I have been elected by the majority, all my acts in the future are deemed to be the acts of the majority and therefore they must be good?

Bentham would have committed suicide if it could.

Although Bentham was at pain to make sure that his theory is not abused or so plainly misrepresented, such argument led to somewhat misconceived critics, such as can be found in Gerald Postema’s "Bentham and the Common Law Tradition" (Oxford, 1968). Postema argued that Bentham had failed to analyse the notion of justice in his work. Some critics even argued that Bentham’s theory gives the notion that an act of murder would be a good act if such murder brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people.

Of course those who prefer to abuse or misread Bentham’s principle would continue doing so by tying up blinkers over their eyes when they come to the part where Bentham argues against tyranny and oppression. I truth, Bentham was concerned of the possibility of tyranny being perpetuated by the majority over non-conformists or the general minority. That led him to propose an ideal state with the required institutions to prevent such tyranny and oppression as well as to address such acts if they took place. Above all, Bentham advocated toleration as an answer to oppression. And before this is abused, let me say that he did not by any means propose that oppression be tolerated.

The fallacy that in a democracy, the majority is always right and thus the acts of the majority must always be accepted is demonstrated by another scholar, Alexis de Tocqueville. In “Democracy in America”, Tocqueville puts it succinctly:

“A majority taken collectively is only an individual, whose opinions, and frequently whose interests, are opposed to those of another individual, who is styled a minority. If it be admitted that a man possessing absolute power may misuse that power by wronging his adversaries, why should not a majority be liable to the same reproach? . . . For my own part, I cannot believe it; the power to do everything, which I should refuse to one of my equals, I will never grant to any number of them. . .”

Tocqueville, together with Herbert Marcuse, is of course one of democracy’s fiercest critics. Marcuse in his seminal work, “The One Dimensional Man” warns of the days when democracies would seduce the masses with “administered reality” which would in turn reduce them into some form of slaves to popular and mainstream thoughts and conformity.

Allow me to end this week’s column with what Tocqueville sees as the danger of democracy in the USA in his time:

“In my opinion, the main evil of the present democratic institutions of the United States does not arise, as is often asserted in Europe, from their weakness, but from their irresistible strength. I am not so much alarmed at the excessive liberty which reigns in that country as at the inadequate securities which one finds there against tyranny. When an individual or a party is wronged in the United States, to whom can he apply for redress? If to public opinion, public opinion constitutes the majority; if to the legislature, it represents the majority and implicitly obeys it; if to the executive power, it is appointed by the majority and serves as a passive tool in its hands. The public force consists of the majority under arms; the jury is the majority invested with the right of hearing judicial cases; and in certain states even the judges are elected by the majority. However iniquitous or absurd the measure of which you complain, you must submit to it as well as you can.”